These shells almost never have a coxswain. Steering is done by applying more power or pressure to the oar(s) on one side of the shell. The hands can overlap (usually left over right in the U.S.), or the left hand is in front of the right. Each rower has two oars.
Single (1X): One rower or sculler. Singles are about 26 feet long and less than a foot wide. Racing singles can weigh as little as 30 pounds. There are heavier, shorter and wider versions often referred to as recreational singles.
Double (2X): Two scullers. Most racing doubles also can be used as a pair with a different set of riggers designed for sweep oars, usually with a rudder added. There also are recreational versions of sculling doubles.
Quadruple (4X): Four scullers. Often referred to as a ‘quad’ and usually has a rudder attached to one of the sculler’s foot stretchers as in the straight four. Most quads also can be rigged as a straight four using a different set of riggers.
These shells usually have a coxswain (pronounced “cocksin” or referred to simply as the cox), who steers the shell using a rudder and guides the rowers with commands. The symbol used for each subtype is within the parentheses. Each rower has one oar.
Coxless pair (2): Two sweep rowers without a coxswain. Steering is done via a rudder attached to a cable that is connected to one of the rower’s foot stretchers
Coxed pair (2+): Two sweep rowers with a coxswain.
Straight (or coxless) four (4): Four sweep rowers without a coxswain. Steering is done with a similar type of rudder set up as the coxless pair.
Coxed four (4): Four sweep rowers a coxswain.
Eight (8+/8): Eight sweep rowers with a coxswain. Eights are 50-60 feet long and weigh about 200+ pounds. The most commonly used shells are eight oarsmen/one coxswain and a four oarsmen/one coxswain.